American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology
2424 American Lane
Madison, WI 53704

Telephone: +1-608-443-2479
Fax: +1-608-443-2474


  1. Good Laboratory Practice Regulations for Nonclinical Laboratory Studies Guidelines. Title 21 Code of Federal Register, subchapter A, part 58. Federal Drug Administration (FDA), US Dept. of Health and Human Services (USHHS)

  1. Environmental Protection Agency, Good Laboratory Practice Standards: 40 CFR part 792 (Toxic Substance Control Act)

  1. Environmental Protection Agency, Expert in Laboratory Management; Quality Assurance/Control: 40 CFR part 160 (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act) 

  1. Guidance for Industry, E6 Good Clinical Practice: Consolidated Guidance.  USHHS-FDA.  Covering recent topics such as Immunotoxicology Evaluation of Investigational New Drugs, General Principles of Software Validation, Bioanalytical Method Validation, and Part 11, Electronic Records; Electronic Signatures -- Scope and Application.

  1. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals.  US Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, NIH Publication No.  86-23, Revised 1996.

  1. Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare website 


Referenced Articles


  1. Adcock D, Kressin D, Marlar RA. 1998. The effect of time and temperature variables on routine coagulation tests. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 9:463–470.
  2. Adcock DM, Kressin DC, Marlar RA.1998. Minimum specimen volume requirements for routine coagulation testing: dependence of citrate concentration. Am J Clin Pathol 09:595–599.
  3. Albasan H, Lulich JP, Osborne CA, et al.  Effects of storage time and temperature on pH, specific gravity, and crystal formation in urine samples from dogs and cats.  J Amer Vet Med Assoc 2003;222:176-179.
  4. Allen TA, Jones RL, Purvance J. Micribiologic evaluation of canine urine: direct microscopic examination and preservation of specimen quality for culture.
  5. Arnold, J. Hematology of the Sandbar shark, Carcharhinus plumbeus: standardization of complete blood count techniques for elasmobranchs. J Vet Clin Path; 2005; 34:115-123.
  6. Arnold, J. White blood cell count discrepancies in Atlantic loggerhead sea turtles: Natt-Herrick vs. Eosinophil Unopette®. Proc Assoc Zoo Vet Tech Conf. 1994:15-26.
  7. Arnold, J., Gargan, C, Belovarac, J. Method Validation Study for Total White Blood Cell Counts: Natt-Herrick versus Eosinophil Unopette ® Methods. Proc Assoc Zoo Vet Tech Conf. 2007: 49.
  8. Bland JM, Altman DG.  Statistical methods for assessing agreement between two methods of clinical measurement.  Lancet 1986; i:307-310.
  9. Bonini P, Plebani M, Ceriotti F, Rubboli F. 2002. Errors in laboratory medicine. Clin Chem 48:691–698.
  10. Boral L, JB Henry. The Crossmatch.  In: Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods.  Bernard and Henry, 18th ed. 1991.
  11. Carter JM, Klausner JS, Osborne CA, Bates FY. Comparison of collection techniques for quantitative urine culture in dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1978;173(3):296-8.
  12. Dale JC, Novis DA. 2002. Outpatient phlebotomy success and reasons for specimen rejection. Arch Pathol Lab Med 126:416–419.
  13. Dein, FJ, Avian Leukocyte Counting Using the Hemacytometer, J Zoo Wild Anim Med; 1994; 25:3.
  14. Fiebig EW, Etzell JE, Ng VL. 2005 Clinically relevant differences in prothrombin time and INR values related to blood sample collection in plastic vs glass tubes. Am J Clin Pathol 124:902–909.
  15. Friedrichs KR, Young KM.  Using an independent quality control software program, EZ Runs, to monitor quality control procedures for a bench-top coagulation analyzer.  Veterinary Clinical Pathology 2005; 34(3):218-223
  16. George JW.  Refractometers in veterinary laboratory medicine: an historical and technical review.  Vet Clin Pathol 2001;30:201-210.
  17. Glick, M., Ryder, K., & Glick, S. Interferographs:  User’s Guide to Interferences in Clinical Chemistry Instruments. 1991.  Indianapolis, IN:  Science Enterprises, Inc.
  18. Goulden BE. Assessment of the usefulness of the examination of a gram smear of fresh uncentrifuged urine in the determination of significant bacteriuria in dogs. N Z Vet J 1968;16(1-2):1-2.
  19. Harr KE, Raskin R, Heard DJ. 2005. Temporal Hematologic and Biochemical Effects of Three Commonly Used Anticoagulants on Macaw (Ara sp.) and Burmese Python (Python molurus bivittatus) Blood. Vet Clin Pathol.  34(4):383-388. 
  20. Hegstad-Davies, RL. 2006. A review of sample handling considerations for reproductive and thyroid hormone measurement in serum or plasma. Theriogenology. 66(3):592-598.
  21. Hyloft-Peterson P, Stöckl D, Blaabjerg O, Petersen B, Birkemose E, Thenpont L, Flensted Lassen J, Kjeldsen J.  Graphical itnerepretation of analytical data from comparison of a field method with a reference method by use of difference plots (opinion).  Clinical Chemistry. 1997; 43:2039-2046.
  22. Jensen AL, Kjelgaard-Hansen M.  Method comparison in the clinical laboratory.  Veterinary Clinical Pathology 2006; 35(3):276-286.
  23. Kratz A, Stanganelli N, Van Cott EM.2006. A comparison of glass and plastic blood collection tubes for routine and specialized coagulation assays: a comprehensive study. Arch Pathol Lab Med 130:39–44.
  24. Lippi, G, Franchini, Montagnana, M, et al., 2006. Quality and reliability of routine coagulation testing: can we trust that sample? Blood Coagula Fibrinolysis 17:1-7.
  25. Natt MP, Herrick, CA. New blood diluent for counting the erythrocytes and leucocytes of the chicken. Poult Sci. 1952; 31:735-738.
  26. Osborne CA, Stevens JB. Urinalysis: A clinical guide to compassionate patient care. Shawnee Mission, KS: Bayer Corporation;1999:17-24, 51-62, and 125-131.
  27. Padilla J, Osborne CA, Ward GE. Effects of storage time and temperature on quantitative culture of canine urine. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 1981;178(10):1077-81.
  28. Rabinovitch A, Arzoumanian L, Curcio KM, Dougherty B, Halim A.  Urinalysis – approved guideline, 3rd ed.  Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute document GP16-A3, 2009.
  29. Raskin RE, Murray KA, Levy JK. Comparison of home monitoring methods for feline urine pH measurement. Vet Clin Path 2002;31:51-55.
  30. Stöckl D, Dewitte K, Thienpont M.  Validity of linear regression in method comparison studies:  limited by the statistical model of the quality of the analytical data?  Clinical Chemistry. 1998; 44(11):2340-2346
  31. Sturgess, CP, Hesford A, Owen H and Privett R.  An investigation into the effects of storage on the diagnosis of crystalluria in cats.  J Fel Med Surg 2001;3:81-85.
  32. Swenson CL, Boisvert AM, Kruger JM, gibbons-Burgener SN. Evaluation of modified Wright-staining of urine sediment as a method for accurate detection of bacteriuria in dogs. J Amer Vet Med Assoc 2004;224(8):1282-9.
  33. Tietz NW.  A model for a comprehensive measurement system in clinical chemistry.  Clinical Chemistry. 1979; 25(6):833-839.
  34. Valenstein PN, Sirota RL. 2004. Identification errors in pathology and laboratory medicine. Clin Lab Med 24:979–996.
  35. Westgard JO, Cary RN, Sold S.  Criteria for judging precision and accuracy in method development and evaluation.  Clinical Chemistry. 1974; 20(7):825-833.




1)    Belford, C. and Lumsden, J.H. Cytopathology. In: Manual of Small Animal Clinical  Pathology. Davidson, M, Else, R.E. and Lumsden, J. (eds). British Small Animal V Veterinary Association, Cheltenham, 2998.

2)    Bellamy JEC, Olexson DW.  Quality Assurance Handbook for Veterinary Laboratories.  Ames, IA.  Iowa State University Press, 2000:101 pages total.

3)    Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns D, eds. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry, 4th ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  WB Saunders Company; 2005. 

4)    Campbell, TW. Avian Hematology. In: Avian Hematology and Cytology. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press; 1988:6-13.

5)    Cowell RL, Tyler RD, Meinkoth JH and DeNicola D.  Diagnostic Cytology and Hematology of the Dog and Cat, 3rd ed. St. Louis, MO:  Mosby, Inc.; 2007.

6)    Day M, Mackin A, Littlewood J, eds.  Manual of Canine and Feline Haematology and Transfusion Medicine.  Quedgeley, Gloucester, UK:  British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2000.

7)    Feldman BF, Zinkl JG, Jain NC, ed.  Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology 5th ed.  Malden, MA; Blackwell; 2000.

8)    Freeman, K.P. Veterinary Cytology: Dog, Cat, Horse and Cow. Manson Publishing/The Veterinary Press, London; 2008.

9)    Fudge AM, ed.  Laboratory Medicine:  Avian and exotic pets.  Philadelphia, PA:  WB Saunders Company; 2000.

10) Harvey JW.  Atlas of Veterinary Hematology:  Blood and bone marrow of domestic animals.  Philadelphia, PA:  WB Saunders Company; 2001.

11) Hawkey, C. M, Clinical Laboratory Medicine: The value of clinical hematology in exotic birds, Exotic Animals, Jocobson, Kollias, Churchill Livingstone; 1988.

12) Kaneko JJ, Harvey JW, Bruss ML, eds.  Clinical Biochemistry of Domestic Animals 6th ed. San Diego, CA:  Academic Press; 2008.

13) Latimer KS, Mahaffey EA, Prasse KW.  Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology 4th ed.  Malden, MA; Wiley-Blackwell; 2003.

14) Linnet K, Boyd JC.  Selection and analytical evaluation of methods—with statistical techniques. In Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE (eds.) Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc.; 2006:353-407

15) Loeb WF, Quimby FW, eds.  The Clinical Chemistry of Laboratory Animals 2nd ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  Taylor & Francis; 1999.

16) Meyer DJ, Harvey JW.  Veterinary Laboratory Medicine:  Interpretation & diagnosis.  2nd. ed.  Philadelphia, PA:  WB Saunders Company; 1998.

17) Osborne CA, Stevens JB.  Urinalysis:  A Clinical Guide to Compassionate Patient Care.  Shawnee Mission, KS:  Bayer Corporation, Agricultural Division, Animal Health; 1999.

18) Raskin RE, Meyer DJ.  Atlas of Canine and Feline Cytology.  Philadelphia, PA:  WB Saunders Company; 2001.

19) Reagan WJ, DeNicola DB, Irizarry Rovira A.  Veterinary Hematology:  Atlas of common domestic species, 2nd ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing: 2008.

20) Stockham SL, Scott MA. Fundamentals of Veterinary Clinical Pathology, 2nd ed.       Walden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell; 2008.

21) Thrall, MA et al.  Veterinary Hematology and Clinical Chemistry.  Philadelphia, PA:  Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2004.

22) Westgard JO.  Basic QC Practices  Training in Statistical Quality Control for Healthcare Laboratories.  2nd ed.  Madison, WI:  Westgard QC, Inc.; 2002.

23) Westgard, JO. Method validation: the experimental plan. In: Westgard. JO, ed. Basic Method Validation, Madison, WI: Westgard QC; 1999:48-55.

24) Westgard JO, Klee GC.  Quality management.  In Burtis CA, Ashwood ER, Bruns DE (eds.) Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Inc.; 2006:485-529.

25) (a)Westgard JO, Quam E.  Method validation: the linearity or reportable range experiment.  In Westgard JO (ed.) Basic Method Validation, 3rd ed. Madison, WI: Westgard QC, Inc.; 2008:102-112.

(b)Westgard JO.  Method validation:  the decision on method performance.  In Westgard JO (ed.).  Basic Method Validation. 3rd edition. Madison, WI:  Westgard QC, Inc.; 2008:188-196.

(c)Westgard JO.  Method validation: the replication experiment.  In Westgard JO (ed.) Basic Method Validation. 3rd ed. Madison, WI: Westgard QC, Inc.; 2008:114-122.

(d)Westgard JO.  Method validation: the comparison of methods experiment.  In Westgard JO (ed.). Basic Method Validation. 3rd ed. Madison, WI:  Westgard QC, Inc.; 2008:124-136.

(e)Westgard JO.  Method validation: statistical sense, sensitivity, and significance. In Westgard JO (ed.).  Basic Method Validation. 3rd ed. Madison WI:  Westgard QC, Inc.; 2008:138-152.

(f)Westgard JO.  Method validation: the interference and recovery experiments. In Basic Method Validation. 3rd ed. Madison, WI: Westgard QC, Inc.; 2008:154-166.

(g)Westgard JO.  Method validation: the detection limit experiment.  In Westgard JO (ed.) Basic Method Validation. 3rd ed. Madison, WI: Westgard QC, Inc.; 2008:168-176.

26) Westgard JO.  What are control materials and what characteristics are important?  In Westgard JO (ed.) Basic QC Practices. 1st ed. Madison,WI: Westgard QC, Inc.;1998:33-46.

27) Wied, G. L., Bibbo, M. and Keeb ler, C.M. Diagnostic Quality Assurance in C Cytopathology. In: Comprehensive Cytopathology, 2nd ed. Bibbo, M. (ed). W.B. Saunders Co, London, 1997.




Journals – General References which frequently contain relevant quality assurance information.

1)    Clinical Chemistry, official publication of the American Association of Clinical Chemistry

2)    Journal of Feline Medicine Surgery

3)    Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association

4)    Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians

5)    New Zealand Veterinary Journal

6)    Toxicologic Pathology, official publication of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology

7)    Veterinary Clinical Pathology, official publication of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and the European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology

8)    Veterinary Pathology, official publication of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists